Vote By Mail

This chart covers all states where no excuse is needed to vote by mail. Click here to see states that require an excuse to vote by mail.

Last updated: June 18, 2018

State VBM (no excuse) VBM Request Deadline Ballot Return Deadline
Alabama No
Alaska Yes 10 days before Election Day Postmarked on or before Election Day
Arizona Yes Second Friday prior to an election Received by Election Day
Arkansas No
California Yes Received 7 days before Election Day or in person If mailed must be postmarked by Election Day and received no later than 3 days after
Colorado All Voters Mailed a Ballot All Voters Mailed a Ballot

In addition to mailing ballot, voters can drop off ballot at voter service and polling centers starting 15 days prior to Election Day or surrender the mail ballot and vote in person.

Must be received by County Clerk by 7pm on Election Day.
Connecticut No
Delaware No
District of Columbia Yes 7 days before election Received by the Board no later than 8:00 p.m. on Election Day
Florida Yes 6th day before Election Day or in person through Election Day Received no later than 7pm on Election Day
Georgia Yes 4 days prior to Election Day (typically Friday before Election Day). Close of polls on Election Day
Hawaii Yes 7 days before Election Day Close of polls at 6:00 pm on Election Day
Idaho Yes 11 days prior to the Election Day At the polling place up until 5 p.m. the Friday before the election if in person; received by Election Day if by mail
Illinois Yes 5 days before Election Day or in person 1 day prior to Election Day Postmarked by Election Day
Indiana No
Iowa Yes Same as the voter registration deadline by statute (5pm 10 days before General; 5pm 11 days before other elections) Received by Election Day or Postmarked by Monday before Election Day and received the Monday following Election Day
Kansas Yes Received by 5pm on Tuesday prior to Election Day Post-marked on or before Election Day and received no more than three days after Election Day; in-person by Election Day
Kentucky No
Louisiana No
Maine Yes 3 business days prior to Election Day 8pm on Election Day
Maryland Yes 7 days before Election Day if want ballot mailed or faxed; 4 days before Election Day if you want to download ballot from website
Massachusetts No
Michigan No
Minnesota Yes Any time, but “leave time for election officials to mail your ballot and for you to return it before Election Day” Received by Election Day (if in person, then by 3pm)
Mississippi No
Missouri No
Montana Yes Received by 12pm the day before Election Day (that late would need to pick up or return in person) 8pm on Election Day
Nebraska Yes Close of business on the 2nd Friday preceding the election Must arrive by the closing of the polls on Election Day
Nevada Yes Received no later than 5pm, 7 days prior to Election Day Received by 7pm on Election Day
New Hampshire No
New Jersey Yes Received 7 days prior to the Election Day if you want the ballot mailed to you; by 3pm the day before the election if you apply in person with the County Clerk. Close of polls on Election Day
New Mexico Yes Received by 5pm on Friday before Election Day Return Deadline: 7pm on Election Day
New York No
North Carolina Yes 5pm on Tuesday prior to Election Day Received by 5pm on Election Day or Postmarked by Election Day and received by 5pm on 3rd day following Election Day
North Dakota Yes No specific deadline Returned deadline: Postmarked by day prior to Election Day
Ohio Yes 3 days before Election Day If mailed, must be postmarked by day before Election Day or in person by close of polls on Election Day.
Oklahoma Yes 5pm on Wednesday prior to the Election Day 7pm on Election Day
(If your absentee ballot is mailed to you, you must return it to the county election board by mail.)
Oregon All Voters Mailed a Ballot All Voters Mailed a Ballot Must be received by 8pm on Election Day. In addition to mailing ballot, voters can drop off ballot at any official drop box across the state.
Pennsylvania No
Rhode Island Yes 4pm on the 21st day before Election Day. Received by 8pm on Election Day.
South Carolina No
South Dakota Yes 5pm the day before Election Day 5pm the day before Election Day
Tennessee No
Texas No
Utah Yes Received by Tuesday before Election Day Postmarked the day before Election Day, or returned in person at a polling location on Election Day
Vermont Yes 5pm or by the close of the town clerk’s office on the day before Election Day Received by close of polls on Election Day
Virginia No
Washington All Voters Mailed a Ballot All Voters Mailed a Ballot Must be postmarked no later than Election Day or returned to a ballot drop box by 8pm on Election Day.
West Virginia No
Wisconsin Yes 5pm on Thursday before Election Day (mailed); 7pm on Friday before Election Day if in person 8pm on Election Day
Wyoming Yes 1 day prior to Election Day 7pm on Election Day

This chart covers the states where an excuse is needed to vote by mail. Click here to see states that do not require an excuse to vote by mail.

Last updated: September 26th, 2018

State Excuse Requirements to Vote By Mail State Website
Alabama • Will be absent from the county on election day
• Is ill or has a physical disability that prevents a trip to the polling place
• Is a registered Alabama voter living outside the county, such as a member of the armed forces, a voter employed outside the United States, a college student, or a spouse or child of such a person
• Is an appointed election officer or poll watcher at a polling place other than his or her regular polling place
• Works a required shift, 10-hours or more, that coincides with polling hours
More Info
Arkansas • Unavoidably absent from polling site on election day
• Unable to attend polling site on election day due to illness or physical disability
• A member of the Uniformed Services, merchant marines or the spouse or a dependent family member and are away from polling location due to the member’s active duty status
•A U.S. citizen whose residence is in Arkansas but is temporarily living outside the territorial limits of the United States
More Info
Connecticut • Active member of the armed forces of the United States
• Out of town during all the hours of voting on Election Day
• Illness prevents you from voting in person on Election Day
• Your religious beliefs prevent you from performing secular activities like voting on Election Day
• You will be performing duties as an election official at a polling place other than your own during all the hours of voting on Election Day
• You have a physical disability that prevents you from voting in person on Election Day
More Info
Delaware • You are in the public service of the United States or the State of Delaware and are unable to come to the polls. This also applies to spouses or dependents who reside with or accompany public servants of the United States or of the State of Delaware or members of the Uniformed Services
• Business or occupation prevents you from coming to the polls.  This also applies to: persons providing care to a parent, spouse or child who is living at home and requires constant care; students;  and otherwise eligible persons who are incarcerated.
•  You are sick, or temporarily or permanently physically disabled   
•  You are on vacation
•  The tenets or teachings of your religion prevent you from coming to the polls
More Info
Indiana •  You have a specific, reasonable expectation that you will be absent from the county on Election Day during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open (6 am until 6 pm)
•  You have a disability
•  You are at least 65 years of age
•  You will have official election duties outside of your voting precinct
•  You are scheduled to work at your regular place of employment during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open
•  You will be confined due to illness or injury or you will be caring for an individual confined due to illness or injury during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open
•  You are prevented from voting because of a religious discipline or religious holiday during the entire 12 hours that the polls are open
•  You are a participant in the state’s address confidentiality program.
•  You are a member of the military or a public safety officer
•  You are a “serious sex offender”” as defined in Indiana Code 35-42-4-14(a).
•  You are prevented from voting due to the unavailability of transportation to the polls
More Info
Kentucky •  Advanced in age, disabled, or ill
•  Military personnel, their Dependents, or Overseas Citizens
•  A student who temporarily resides outside the county
•  A voter who temporarily resides outside of Kentucky and who maintains eligibility to vote in Kentucky, such as a “snowbird”
• Incarcerated but not yet convicted of a crime
•  Prevented from voting in person at the polls on election day and from casting an in-person absentee ballot in the county clerk’s office on all days in-person absentee voting is conducted because of his or her employment location
More Info
Louisiana •  If you are 65 years of age or older
•  If you are temporarily outside of Louisiana or your parish during the early voting period and on election day, or expect to be
• If you work or expect to be offshore working during the early voting period and on election day
•  If you reside in a nursing home, veterans’ home or a hospital for an extended stay for a physical disability and are unable to vote in person during early voting or at the polls on election day
•  If you are a student, instructor or professor located and living outside of your parish of registration, or the spouse/dependent thereof
•If you are minister, priest, rabbi, or other member of the clergy assigned outside of your parish of registration, or a spouse/dependent
• If you moved more than 100 miles from the parish seat of your former residence after the voter registration books closed (30 days prior to an election)
•If you are involuntarily confined in an institution for mental treatment outside your parish of registration and you are not interdicted and not judicially declared incompetent
• If you expect to be hospitalized on election day and did not have knowledge of the hospitalization until after the time for early voting had expired; or you were hospitalized during the time for early voting and you expect to be hospitalized on election day; or you were either hospitalized or restricted to bed by your physician during early voting and on election day
• If you are incarcerated or expect to be incarcerated in an institution inside or outside of your parish of registration and you are not under an order of imprisonment for conviction of a felony
•  If you are a program participant in the secretary of state’s Address Confidentiality Program
•  If you will be sequestered on the day of the election
More Info
Massachusetts A voter must be prevented from voting at their polling place on Election Day, due to:
•  Absence from the voter’s city or town on Election Day
•  Physical disability
•  Religious belief
More Info
Michigan •  Age 60 years old or older
•  Unable to vote without assistance at the polls
•  Expecting to be out of town on election day
•  In jail awaiting arraignment or trial
•  Unable to attend the polls due to religious reasons
•  Appointed to work as an election inspector in a precinct outside of your precinct of residence
More Info
Mississippi • Any enlisted or commissioned members of the US armed forces who are citizens of Mississippi
• Any member of the Merchant Marine or American Red Cross who is a citizen of Mississippi
• Any disabled war veteran who is a patient in any hospital, who is a citizen of Mississippi
• Any civilian attached to and serving outside of the US with any branch of the Armed Forces or with the Merchant Marine or American Red Cross, who is a citizen of Mississippi
• Any citizen of Mississippi temporarily residing outside the territorial limits of the US and the District of Columbia
• An employee engaged in interstate transportation required to be away from his or her county of residence on Election Day due to employment
• An employee, businessperson, professional, tradesman or worker required being over 50 miles away from the county of residence on Election Day due to employment
• Anyone with a temporary or permanent physical disability
• Anyone 65 years of age or older
• A parent, spouse or dependent staying with a hospitalized person with a temporary or permanent disability and is 50 miles or more away from his or her county of residence on Election Day
• A member of a congressional delegation required to be over 50 miles away from his or her county of residence on Election Day
More Info 1
More Info 2
Missouri •  Absence on Election Day from the jurisdiction of the election authority in which such voter is registered to vote
•  Incapacity or confinement due to illness or physical disability, including a person who is primarily responsible for the physical care of a person who is incapacitated or confined due to illness or disability
•  Religious belief or practice
•  Employment as an election authority, as a member of an election authority, or by an election authority at a location other than such voter’s polling place
•  Incarceration, provided all qualifications for voting are retained
•  Certified participation in the address confidentiality program established because of safety concerns
More Info
New Hampshire • You plan to be absent on the day of the election from the city, town, or unincorporated place where you aredomiciled
• You cannot appear in public on election day because of observance of a religious commitment
• You are unable to vote in person due to a disability
• You cannot appear at any time during polling hours at my polling place because of an employment obligation
More Info
New York •  Absent from your county or, if a resident of New York City absent from said city, on Election Day
• Unable to appear at the polls due to temporary or permanent illness or disability; or because you are the primary care giver of one or more individuals who are ill or physically disabled
• A resident or patient of a Veterans Health Administration Hospital
• Detained in jail awaiting Grand Jury action or confined in prison after conviction for an offense other than a felony
More Info
Pennsylvania People who may vote by absentee ballot include:
• College students
• People whose work or vacation take them away from the Municipality where they live
• Those with a physical disability or illness that prevents them from going to the polling place
• Members of the Military
• People who may have a conflict due to the celebration of a religious holiday
More Info
South Carolina • Members of the Armed Forces or Merchant Marine serving outside their county of residence and their spouses and dependents residing with them
• Persons serving with the American Red Cross or with the United Service Organizations (USO) who are attached to and serving with the Armed Forces outside their county of residence and their spouses and dependents residing with them
• Overseas Citizens
• Persons who are physically disabled
• Students attending school outside their county of residence and their spouses and dependents residing with them
• Persons who for reasons of employment will not be able to vote on election day
• Government employees serving outside their county of residence on Election Day and their spouses and dependents residing with them
• Persons who plan to be on vacation outside their county of residence on Election Day
• Persons serving as a juror in state or federal court on Election Day
• Persons admitted to the hospital as emergency patients on Election Day or within a four-day period before the election
• Persons with a death or funeral in the family within three days before the election
• Persons confined to a jail or pre-trial facility pending disposition of arrest or trial
• Persons attending sick or physically disabled persons
• Certified poll watchers, poll managers, and county election officials working on Election Day
• Persons sixty-five years of age or older
•Persons who for religious reasons do not want to vote on a Saturday (Presidential Primaries Only)
More Info
Tennessee • The voter will be outside the county of registration during the early voting period and all day on election day
• The voter or the voter’s spouse is enrolled as a full-time student in an accredited college or university outside the county of registration
• The voter’s licensed physician has filed a statement with the county election commission stating that, in the physician’s judgment, the voter is medically unable to vote in person. The statement must be filed not less than seven (7) days before the election and signed under the penalty of perjury
• The voter resides in a licensed facility providing relatively permanent domiciliary care, other than a penal institution, outside the voter’s county of residence
• The voter will be unable to vote in person due to service as a juror for a federal or state court
•The voter is sixty (60) years of age or older
• The voter has a physical disability and an inaccessible polling place
• The voter is hospitalized, ill, or physically disabled and because of such condition, cannot vote in person;
• The voter is a caretaker of a person who is hospitalized, ill, or disabled
• The voter is a candidate for office in the election
• The voter serves as an election day official or as a member or employee of the election commission
• The voter’s observance of a religious holiday prevents him or her from voting in person during the early voting period and on election day
• The voter or the voter’s spouse possesses a valid commercial drivers license (CDL) or the voter possesses a valid Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) card and certifies that he or she will be working outside the state or county of registration during the open hours of early voting and Election Day, and has no specific out-of-county or out-of-state address to which mail may be sent or received during such time
• The voter is a member of the military or is an overseas citizen
More Info
Texas To be eligible to vote early by mail in Texas, you must:
• be 65 years or older
• be disabled
• be out of the county on election day and during the period for early voting by personal appearance
• be confined in jail, but otherwise eligible
More Info
Virginia • Student attending college or university outside of locality of residence in Virginia
• Spouse of student attending college or university outside locality of residence in Virginia
• Business outside County/City of residence on Election Day
• Personal business or vacation outside County/City of residence on Election Day
• Working and commuting to/from home for 11 or more hours between 6:00 AM and 7:00 PM on Election Day
• A first responder (member of law enforcement, fire fighter, emergency technician, search and rescue)
• Disability or illness
• Primarily and personally responsible for the care of a disabled/ill family member confined at home
• Pregnancy
• Confined, awaiting trial
• Confined, convicted of a misdemeanor
• An electoral board member, registrar, officer of election, or custodian of voting equipment
• A religious obligation
• Active Duty Merchant Marine or Armed Forces Branch of service
• Spouse or dependent living with a member of 6A Branch of service
• Temporarily residing outside of US Enter your last date of residency at your Virginia voting residence only if you have given up that address permanently or have no intent to return
• Temporarily residing outside of US for employment or spouse or dependent residing with employee
• Requesting a ballot for presidential and vice-presidential electors only
• New state of residence and date moved from Virginia. Only eligible if you moved less than 30 days before the presidential election.
• Authorized representative of candidate or party serving inside the polling place
• Granted a protective order issued by or under the authority of a court of competent jurisdiction
More Info
West Virginia • Confined to a location because of an injury, illness, or other medical reason
• Physically disabled or immobilized due to extreme advanced age
• Cannot access the voting area within the courthouse or annex because of physical disability
• Will be absent from the county during the hours of the early voting period and on Election Day because of employment work hours and distance from county seat that makes voting impossible
• Will be absent from the county due to personal or business travel
• Will be absent due to attendance at a college, university, or other place of education or training
• Will be residing outside of the county for the election period while serving as an elected or appointed federal or state officer
• Voter will be residing outside of the county for the election period serving in any other employment of specific duration 4 years or less
• Is currently under incarceration or home detention for a misdemeanor conviction
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Uniformed Overseas Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) Voters
Voters seeking eligibility with the Uniformed Overseas Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA) must be:
• A member of the United States’ Uniformed Armed Services or of the Merchant Marines on active duty, including activated National Guard members away on orders;
• The spouse or dependent of such members on active duty; or
• A United States citizen temporarily, or permanently, residing outside the country and qualified to vote in the last place in which the person was domiciled before leaving the United States.

 

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